Measuring the salinity or dissolved salt content of water is important as aquatic organisms, livestock and crops thrive at different salinity levels. Freshwater has a salinity value of less than 0.5 ppt while seawater has an average salinity of around 35 ppt.
Salinity is the measure of the amount of dissolved salts in water. It is usually expressed in parts per thousand (ppt) or percentage (%). Within an estuary, the salinity levels are referred to as oligohaline (0.5 - 5.0 ppt), mesohaline (5.0 - 18.0 ppt) or polyhaline (18.0 - 30.0 ppt). Near the connection with the open sea, estuarine waters may be euhaline, where salinity levels are the same as the ocean at more than 30.0 ppt.
Salinity varies from place to place in the ocean, but relative proportions of most major dissolved constituents remain virually constant.
Salinity is often derived from Electrical Conductivity (EC) measurements. EC is measured by passing an electric current between two metal plates or electrodes in the water sample, measuring how readily the current flows between the plates. The use of EC measurements to estimate the ionic content of seawater led to the development of the Practical Salinity Scale 1978 (PSS-78).
The PSS-78 has been considered by the Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards and iis recommended by all oceanographic organisations as the scale in which to report future salinity data.
The LAQUAtwin Salt 11 Pocket Meter measures the conductivity value of a sample then converts it to a salinity value based on the salinity standard curve selected. The sensor has two titanium metals coated with platinum black that resist corrosion and a temperature sensor for accurate measurements. The meter is programmed with two standard calibration curves - sea water and sodium chloride (NaCl).
The Microtox FX Analyser system can perform a dual function; Toxicity Testing and Microbial Monitoring. The Microtox FX system uses a strain of naturally occuring luminescent bacteria called Alivibrio Fischeri to provide acute toxicity detection. The bacteria emit light as a natural part of their matabolism. Exposure to a toxic substance cuases disruption of the respiratory process of the bacteria resulting in a reduced light output.
For microbial detection, ATP testing is performed. All organisms contain ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) as their main energy source. The amount of ATP in a sample is directly proportional to the biomass of the sample. ATP reacts with luciferin/luciferase, the enzyme system present in firefly tails, to produce light. In the reaction, each molecule of ATP produces one photon of light. The light output of this reaction can be accurately measured using the Microtox FX Analyser system.
For any product information or to request a brochure, please contact us
Gold Analysis was undertaken for a client who wanted to determine level of gold in their final effluent. As they were refining gold, they needed to ensure that the gold levels in their final effluent was kept as low as possible. You basically do not want your product to go down the drain.
The instrument used to do this analysis was the PDV6000ultra. This instrument was installed in the laboratory for this determination, but can also be used as a portable analyser in the field. The system runs on VAS software when connected to a PC (the software is supplied free of charge to all users of the instrument).
Analysers On-Line has built a new Mobile Laboratory combining both Bench systems and On-Line Analysers. The Station is modular in its basic design and can be optimised as required to perform analysis in the field for acid mine drainage (AMD), spill detection or environmental monitoring as some typical examples.
The company has a whole array of suitable equipment for use in the Station or external equipment can be sourced, all enquiries are welcome.
The Station is complete with a suitable pump to provide a fast flow loop if real time monitoring is required. There is a built-in water reservoir and sink for washing purposes. The Mobile Station design is a proven one based and improved on our previous field designs featuring improved insulation and storage facilities.
Since 2013 the MOSA Mobile Laboratory has been successfully used in the field in various projects. With the use of suitable sampling devices, sample monitoring can be performed on-line or at-line. With on-line monitoring the sample water in a river or dam can be monitored 24/7 which allows for trend monitoring and a true picture of any discharge present to be assessed.
This specific Mobile Laboratory is equipped with LAR Instrumentation to monitor on-line a variety of water quality parameters such as TOC, COD, free ammonia, nitrate, pH, conductivity, redox and toxicity. Other additional bench parameters such as phosphate, sulphate and water hardness were also determined in the Station.
During one of these projects, the Mobile Laboratory was used to assist our German partners in monitoring water quality in the influent and effluent water from a mobile WWTP which enabled them to make the timeously adjustments to their plant.
Modern Water's Monitoring Division has recently delivered that division's single largest order to date, a purpose-built containerised trace metal monitoring system in the Middle East for a multinational company. To read the full press release......click here
The clean COD determination in the laboratory.
The environmentally friendly COD analysis.
Nutrient pollution in surface waters can cause algae to increase to potentially harmful levels. Algae deplete oxygen and certain species of blue-green and red algae can be poisonous to aquatic life.
Modern Water's algae and algal toxin detection technologies provide fast, accurate and quantitative results.
Dissolved salts in water can be particularly challenging for On-Line Analyser systems. With our LAR Process Analysers, we have an innovative method to deal with these challenges in the industrial environment.
Salts are used as primary products, processing material as well as final products in many industries. Generally salts can be devided into organic and inorganic salts and most are soluble in water.